In Folk Devils and Moral Panics, Stanley Cohen states moral panic occurs when “…[a] condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests.” Moral panics are “extreme social responses to the belief that the moral condition of society is deteriorating at a rapid pace.”
Three major elements of a moral panic include 1) framing / the role of the media: amplifies and shapes public ideas of deviance, often reinforcing stereotypes, 2) the creation of a folk devil: a target stripped of favorable characteristics, often demonizing certain groups, and 3) policing / the development of new policies to “police the crisis“.
The documentary Bowling for Columbine examines the mass shooting as a catalyst for a moral panic. The following interview with singer Marilyn Manson discusses some of the elements of a moral panic, including framing and creation of a folk devil.
The documentary also discusses policing of students in schools, with calls for school uniforms and use of metal detectors.
In Sociology and “in group” is a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty, or ‘we.’ An “out group” is a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition, or ‘them’ and ‘those people.’ These groups can foster loyalty and generate conflict. In groups generally hold overly positive view of themselves and unfairly negative view of out groups, with traits seen as virtues in an in group seen as vices in an out group.
The following clip from the Australian television show The Weekly examines the tensions between cyclists and drivers as in and out groups. Unfortunately, you will need a VPN set to Australia to view the video.
In Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Pierre Bourdieu defines habitus as a system of dispositions we have as members of a social group of class. This includes the way we think, speak, act, learn and is rooted in our socialization. Our lifestyles and tastes are then a product of our habitus. Specifically we are limited by economic possibilities, whereby constraints become preferences and results in ‘choices.’ As stated by Bourdieu, “[t]hrough taste, an agent has what he likes because he likes what he has”.
There are some dominant sets of ideas that define what is culturally valued and desirable, regarded as objective realities. These are associated with specific social groups or classes, defining what is legitimate or worthwhile. For example, we hold classical music to be objectively better or more valuable than pop music.
To have cultural capital is not only to know the valued information, but to embody it, to look like it is natural and a part of who we are. Cultural capital, or the lack thereof, can be found in your dress, haircut, the way you hold your body, accent and manner of speaking. Bourdieu argues the rich discussing the “banalities about art…are inseparable from the steady tone, the slow casual diction, the distant or self assured smile, the measured gesture, the well-tailored suit.”
Comedian Jim Gaffigan talks about a number of issues around McDonald’s and consumption. Specifically I find his commentary referencing the negative cultural capital around eating at McDonald’s interesting. McDonald’s is not only not held in esteem, but it is generally thought of as cheap, poor quality food for unrefined palates. In the clip, Gaffigan talks about the negative stigma of consuming McDonald’s and connects it to similar practices lacking cultural capital. Though his comparisons might be considered offensive (references to sex work, tattooing), they are rooted in the cultural hierarchies and values he is satirizing.
“Its fun telling people you go to McDonald’s. They always give you that look like ‘Oh, I didn’t know I was better than you’.”
“I’m just here for the 99 cent ATM, what are you doing here Jim?” “I’m just meeting a hooker, I’m certainly not eating here.”
“I know some of you are like, “Sorry white trashy guy, I don’t eat McDonald’s””
“I’m tired of people acting like they are better than McDonald’s. Its like you may have never stepped foot in McDonald’s, but you have your own McDonald’s. Maybe instead of buying a Big Mac you read Us Weekly. Hey, thats still McDonald’s. Its just served up a little different.”
“It may take me a while to digest my Quarter Pounder with cheese, but that tramp stamp is forever.”